Attitudinal Judgment

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Only manner of presentation vivid or pallid was varied. Finally, the testimonial and the product description were always evaluatively inconsistent to permit assessment of the relative impact of vivid versus pallid information. Brand attitude favorability as a function of information vividness, valence, and expertise is presented in Table 1. No significant main effects were obtained. Simple effect tests were performed to interpret the interactions while controlling for the compounding of alpha.

As predicted, this pattern was more pronounced for experts than for novices. The manner in which information is presented has a strong effect on product evaluations, even when information content is held constant. Although vividly as opposed to pallidly presented information influences the judgments of both experts and novices, it has a greater impact on the judgments of experts. Of course, this effect is unwarranted because manner of presentation does not influence the reliability or validity of information. Hence, vivid information is weighed heavily in judgment, even when more important but less vivid information is available.

The present results also illustrate the paradox of the expert rather nicely. Although experts are able to learn, use, and remember more relevant information than novices Alba and Hutchinson , they are also likely to read too much into information of low or marginal probative value. Experts tend to process information more extensively and more deeply, and, consequently, experts tend to generate a richer and more elaborate associative network for a given piece of information.

When experts who are able to elaborate extensively are exposed to vivid information that is easy to elaborate on , a very rich associative network is formed.

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What effects on memory and judgment are produced by a rich associative network? First, elaborative processing tends to increase recall Anderson An elaborate network contains not only the target information, but also other related information. When a retrieval cue activates some related information, this information can then be used to infer the target information Reder ; Walker Second, elaborative processing tends to increase judgment polarization Tesser When missing information is correlated with presented information, presented information can be used to draw inferences about omissions.

These inferences increase the amount of information that can be used as inputs for judgment, and as the amount of information available for judgment increases, judgmental extremity and confidence also increases the set-size effect, see Anderson Although the results are consistent with the hypothesis that novices are more susceptible to underprocessing biases, whereas experts are more likely to exhibit overprocessing biases, alternative interpretations are possible.

For example, although we controlled for the amount of information presented and for information novelty, redundancy, ambiguity, coherence, etc.

Social Judgment Theory

For example, a fellow undergraduate may be a more credible source, compared to an unknown individual interviewed by a consumer magazine. Furthermore, perceptions of a source may vary as a function of the level of expertise of the perceiver. Future research should control for possible source effects. Finally, it should been emphasized that most of the research that has been conducted to date on inferential biases has focused on underprocessing biases. When too little cognitive effort is allocated to an information-processing task, important information is likely to be overlooked or underutilized and a number of systematic errors are likely to result.

Attitude (psychology) - Wikipedia

Novices are especially susceptible to this class of inferential errors. However, when too much effort is allocated to a cognitive task, several interesting overprocessing errors are likely to occur. Unfortunately, less is known about this class of inferential errors. The results of the present study indicate that the vividness effect is more pronounced for experts than for novices. Future research should investigate whether or not experts are more susceptible to other overprocessing errors as well.

Overprocessing errors such as the correspondence bias Gilbert and Krull , the use of irrelevant analogies Gilovich , the perseverance effect Ross et al. Alba, Joseph W. Anderson, John R.

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