The Socio-Economic Vitality of Cities. The Cultural Energy of Cities.
Towards Brighter Urban Futures. Back Matter Pages About this book Introduction Cities and the energy field are now on the verge of dramatic change. Governance development efficiency innovation production sustainability sustainable development.
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Evapotranspiration reduces the temperature in the area around vegetation by converting solar radiation to latent heat. Lower temperatures caused by both evapotranspiration and direct shading lead to a reduction in the amount of heat absorbed and therefore emitted by low albedo man-made urban surfaces [ , ]. Much of what has been discussed above has ignored the differing sizes of conurbations. Cities face different impacts, depending upon their sizes and levels of development. Small cities of upper income nations are facing with population decline as a result of the migration to larger cities for better job opportunities and higher life standards.
Diminishing manpower makes it difficult for small cities to compete globally in terms of economy and productivity. On the other hand large cities in developed world are facing with the impacts of aging infrastructure and population. Increasing population creates inequality and social cohesion inside the cities while job opportunities become more competitive [ ]. In contrast to developed nations, small cities in developing countries are faced with the impacts of weak economies and weak urban governance.
Sustainable Development, Energy and the City
Due to their inadequate infrastructure and buildings, such cities lack the resilience to survive natural disasters such as earthquake or flood is very low. This Survival is threatened and in many cases many people are forced to vacate their homes See Fig. Environmental pollution is probably the most significant problem facing these cities, a result of the rapid industrialisation.
But the latter potentially creates the wealth that can enable developing world cities to overcome their growing pains provided it is harnessed for benefit of all and is not siphoned off by corruption. Table represents the specific impacts of global urbanization depending on the size and development level of a city. In many cities of China See Fig.
The severe impacts of rapid urbanisation can be ameliorated by applying creative design to infrastructure. Ecosystems like multifunctional units will provide several uses rather than a single functionality thereby saving energy, time and cost. For instance garden plots can serve as water management system while providing food for citizens. Similarly multifunctional buildings could save time for people while allowing efficient use of land [ ]. Significant advances in computer simulation provided tools that enable us to evaluate current conditions and requirements thus modelling future scenarios.
This phenomenon will have increasing importance in future cities to monitor existing conditions for efficient use of capital and natural resources or controlling traffic flow through wireless sensor networks [ — ]. In addition it will allow modifying energy usage or household waste of urban dwellings with real time feedback [ — ].
South Korea has already put this technology into practice in city of Songdo, where traffic, waste and energy usage are monitored [ ]. Similarly in Rio de Janeiro there is a high-tech centre where public safety responses to natural disasters or building collapses are quickly identified [ , ]. The recent earthquake in Nepal demonstrated that, this kind of technological centre could save many lives with timely intervention during disasters.
Technically, highly automated management systems are very attractive, but they have potential downsides.
Technology must be tempered by democratic safeguards if individual liberties are not to be infringed. The vulnerability of a highly networked city to a physical or a cyber- attack on data centres must be minimised. These developments could potentially be just important to the operation of modern cities as the new engineering technologies. Emerging cities should be where human beings find satisfaction of basic needs and essential public goods. Where various products can be found in sufficiency and their utility enjoyed.
Future cities should also be the habitats where ambitions, aspirations and other immaterial aspects of life are realized, providing contentment and happiness and increasing the prospects of individual and collective well-being.
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However in many developing cities, prosperity is absent or restricted to some groups or only enjoyed in some parts of the city [ 6 ]. Low purchase power contrarily increasing expenses could socioeconomically pressurize individuals and minimize their social subsistence. This situation will turn citizens from productive and creative individuals to the ones just trying to survive. Cities also should be compact structured with improved accessibility, they should include natural habitats allowing biodiversity and socialisation of individuals and should have a well-designed transport network which will eliminate the need for private vehicles to overcome the rising traffic problem in growing cities.
A Civilisation of Visions and Actions
The future urban configurations should concentrate on efficient use of resources and opportunities that could help to achieve prosperity and citizen well-being in five dimensions as defined below and illustrated in Fig. Deploy the infrastructure, physical assets and amenities — adequate water, sanitation, power supply, road network, information and communications technology etc. Provide the social services — education, health, recreation, safety and security etc. Minimize poverty, inequalities and segments of the population live in abject poverty and deprivation.
Protect the environment and preserve the natural assets for the sake of sustainable urbanization. The past few decades have witnessed a notable surge in economic growth, but one which has been accompanied by an equally daunting degree of inequity under various forms, with wider income gaps and deepening poverty in many cities across the world. Economic inequality is seriously detrimental to the equitable distribution among individuals of opportunities to pursue a life of their choosing and be spared from extreme deprivation in outcomes.
According to recent reports, income gaps between rich and poor are expanding in both developed and developing countries [ 6 , ]. Cities generate wealth, but the problem is the unequal distribution of it. Despite considerable increases in productivity e. GDP per capita along with reductions in extreme poverty, inequality as a whole is growing in most parts of the world — a process that undermines urban life quality [ ]. In many cities, the population and local experts concur that inequalities are becoming steeper which could be a threat for emerging cities in terms of their sustainability and well-being of citizens.
This can integrate environmental technologies, comprehensive urban development, fiscal sustainability and good governance, to provide emerging cities with a set of tools in order to improve the quality of life globally. However, cities are struggling with climate change, changes in population and demographics, congestion, healthcare, and pressure on key resources.
Nevertheless, simply applying innovative technologies alone will not guarantee the combination of sustainability and acceptable living standards for future cities…good governance and management will also play a pivotal role. This can only be provided by utilizing technological advancements optimally whilst also developing short and long term management, organization and development strategies to realize the desired objectives.
The authors wish to gratefully acknowledge the various reference resources benefitted for preparing this paper. The valuable suggestions of the anonymous reviewers in improving the quality of the manuscript are also greatly appreciated. Accessed 18 August Matuschke I Rapid urbanization and food security: Using food density maps to identify future food security hotspots. Accessed 12 August Provides a modern selection from the original volumes.
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How can the development goals be achieved? | World Economic Forum
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